Perfil neuropsicológico y grado de discapacidad en pacientes con Esclerosis Múltiple. Recaída-Remisión

Ivette Cabrera Abreu, Amado Díaz de la Fe, María de los Ángeles Robinson Agramonte, Yaquelyn García Lujardo, Margarita Báez Martin, Daymet Grass Fernández

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Introducción. La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad inflamatoria desmielinizante crónica del sistema nervioso central. Existe un consenso relativo en cuanto a la presencia de afectaciones cognitivas en estos pacientes. Muchos estudios se caracterizan por un alto nivel de heterogeneidad en cuanto a las variables clínicas. De igual modo, se observa variabilidad en la metodología empleada. Métodos. Se estudiaron 26 pacientes con diagnóstico de esclerosis múltiple recaída-remisión. Se evaluaron los dominios de atención, memoria, lenguaje, habilidades visoespaciales y funciones ejecutivas frontales, así como su posible relación con el grado de discapacidad. Resultados. El estudio mostró que el 88,46% de los pacientes presentó alteraciones cognitivas. Las funciones más afectadas fueron la memoria auditiva verbal, las funciones ejecutivas frontales y en menor medida, la atención. El grado de discapacidad osciló entre leve y moderado y no se encontró relación entre las alteraciones cognitivas y el grado de discapacidad. Conclusiones. Las funciones psíquicas superiores están afectadas de forma diferenciada en los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple evaluados, y no muestran relación con el grado de discapacidad.

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